# Accessibility

GeoGebra Math Apps are designed with accessibility in mind! Compatible with screen readers and keyboard-only navigation, our apps meet Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 level AA standards.

On this page, you will find information on the following accessibility topics:

For the best experience, we recommend using one of the following setups:

• Chrome browser with NVDA or JAWS
• Safari or Chrome browser with VoiceOver

💡 To make sure you hear exactly what you type, set your screen reader to announce every character:

• NVDA:  Preferences → Settings → Keyboard → ☑️ Speak typed characters
• Jaws: Utilities → Settings Center → Typing Echo → ☑️ Characters
• VoiceOver: Utility → Verbosity → Text → While typing speak: Characters

💡 Use Tab and Shift + Tab as your main navigation keys. The arrow keys are reserved for moving objects in the 2D coordinate plane, moving the coordinate plane, and changing values. Cycling through the menu items will still work using the arrow keys.

 Windows / Mac OS Action Tab Navigate the Calculator, select next object Shift + Tab Navigate the Calculator backwards, select previous object Space Press buttons, open / close menus, toggle menu items.When a number (slider) is selected, space will start / stop the animation of the slider. Enter Edit objects, confirm input Arrows Increase and decrease the value of sliders, move points and other objects up and down, left and right. Inside menus: cycle through menu items Win: Ctrl + Arrows Mac: Ctrl + Shift + Arrows x10 speed multiplierIncrease and decrease values, move objects 10 times faster Shift + Arrows x0.1 speed multiplierIncrease and decrease values, move objects 10 times slower Win: Alt + Arrows Mac: Option + Arrows x100 speed multiplier Plus or Minus Move points along paths Menu key or Shift + F10 Open context menus Backspace or Delete Delete selected object Ctrl + A, then Delete Delete all objects (to clear calculator) Escape Leave the Calculator

# Keyboard Shortcuts

 Windows / Mac OS Action Ctrl + Shift + A Show / Hide Algebra Window Ctrl + Shift + 1 Show / Hide Graphics Window Ctrl + D Toggle value / definition / command view in Algebra Window / Show / Hide selected object Ctrl + Z UndoNote: works only if Undo / Redo is enabled in App configuration Ctrl + Y or Ctrl + Shift + Z RedoNote: works only if Undo / Redo is enabled in App configuration Ctrl + Minus Zoom outNote: works only if Zoom is enabled in App configuration Ctrl + Plus Zoom inNote: works only if Zoom is enabled in App configuration F3 Copy definition of selected object to the Input Bar F4 Copy value of selected object to the Input Bar F5 Copy name of selected object to the Input Bar

# Algebra Input

💡 All functions available on the on-screen keyboard can be easily accessed using your physical keyboard. Enter your number, calculation, function, or equation into the Input Bar and press Enter to confirm.

GeoGebra Input Bar

## Simple Input

Try the following examples and experience a smooth and user-friendly input behaviour:
 Input Result 2 will create a slider so that you can change this number easily 3 + 5 will calculate 3 + 5 and output 8 1/4 will create the fraction ¼ x^2 will create a quadratic function and show it in the Graphing Window

All your inputs will be labeled automatically. If you prefer, you can also enter labels yourself:
 Input Result a = 2 will create a slider so that you can change this number easily b = 3 + 5 will calculate 3 + 5 and output 8 c = 1/4 will create the fraction ¼ f(x) = x^2 will create a quadratic function and show it in the Graphing Window

You can use these labels to re-use values and functions associated with them:

 Input Result f + b will output x^2 + 8, and add a new label g(x)

💡 Press Enter on your keyboard to edit an existing row in the Algebra Window.

When typing more advanced expressions using exponents, fractions or similar, you’ll need to press the Arrow Right key to move the cursor out of the exponent or fraction and back in line. Here are some examples:

 Expression Input Note x^2 + 1 x ^ 2 + 1 Pressing the Right Arrow key will move the cursor out of the exponent. ¼ + x 1 / 4 + 1 Pressing the Right Arrow key will move the cursor out of the denominator.

💡 When using brackets, the close bracket will be added automatically. You can still type it, which will replace the automatic one. You can also navigate past it by pressing the Right Arrow key.

Use brackets deliberately when copy + pasting expressions into the Input Bar.
Mathematically, 2^(3/4)+5 is not the same as 2^3/4+5.

• 2^(3/4) means “two to the power of three-fourths”
• 2^3/4 means “two to the power of three, divided by four”

Also functions need brackets, for example:

• sin pi-1/8pi means "sine of pi, minus one-eighth pi"
• sin(pi-1/8pi) means "sine of the expression pi minus one-eighth pi"

## Special Characters

 Input Character Win: Alt + a / b / d / …Mac: Option + a / b / d / … Greek letters α, β, δ, … e Euler ℯ i Imaginary unit i pi Pi π inf Infinity ∞

## Symbols

 Input Character ^ Superscript, to the power of _ Subscript / Fraction != Not-equal-to ≠ <= Less-than-or-equal-to ≤ >= Greater-than-or-equal-to ≥ == Is-equal-to ≟ && Logical AND || Logical OR ! Logical NOT

## Functions

 Input Function sqrt(x) Square-root (√) of x nroot(x,n) Nth Root of x abs(x) Absolute value of x sin(x) Sine of x cos(x) Cosine of x tan(x) Tangent of x ln(x) Natural logarithm of x log(x) Logarithm of x log(b,x) Logarithm with base b of x floor(x) Floor function of x ceil(x) Ceiling function of x

# Tools and Commands

In GeoGebra Math Apps, every Tool has a corresponding Command that creates the exact same object, providing flexibility in how you interact with the app. Essentially, Tools are visual representations of mathematical Commands.

To use Commands, simply start typing your desired action into the Input Bar. GeoGebra Commands are intuitive and typically named according to their mathematical function. Once you type three letters, the automatic syntax help will appear, guiding you to the correct Command and its parameters.

Note: The syntax help is not fully accessible yet, but improvements are underway. Meanwhile, you can find a comprehensive list of commands, including syntax help, in the GeoGebra Manual.

Try the following examples to get started with Commands:

 Type Function Roots(f) Roots of function f Extremum(f) Extremum of function f Derivative(f) Derivative of function f (CAS Calculator) Derivative(f,a,b) Derivative of function f between a and b Integral(f) Integral of function f Intersect(f,g) Intersection point(s) of functions f and g Line(A,B) Line through points A and B

# Feedback

Accessibility is important to us! We know there's always room for improvement, and your feedback is important to us. Please contact us at accessibility@geogebra.org with any questions or comments to help us provide the best possible experience for everyone.

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